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Q: Initial bytes incorrect after Java AES/CBC decryption

This was originally posted as an answer to the question "Initial bytes incorrect after Java AES/CBC decryption" on

In this answer I choose to approach the “Simple Java AES encrypt/decrypt example” main theme and not the specific debugging question because I think this will profit most readers.

This is a simple summary of my blog post about AES encryption in Java so I recommend reading through it before implementing anything. I will however still provide a simple example to use and give some pointers what to watch out for.

In this example I will choose to use authenticated encryption with Galois/Counter Mode or GCM mode. The reason is that in most case you want integrity and authenticity in combination with confidentiality (read more in the blog).

AES-GCM Encryption/Decryption Tutorial #

Here are the steps required to encrypt/decrypt with AES-GCM with the Java Cryptography Architecture (JCA). Do not mix with other examples, as subtle differences may make your code utterly insecure.

1. Create Key #

As it depends on your use-case, I will assume the simplest case: a random secret key.

SecureRandom secureRandom = new SecureRandom();
byte[] key = new byte[16];
SecretKey secretKey = SecretKeySpec(key, "AES");


2. Create the Initialization Vector #

An initialization vector (IV) is used so that the same secret key will create different cipher texts.

byte[] iv = new byte[12]; //NEVER REUSE THIS IV WITH SAME KEY


3. Encrypt with IV and Key #

final Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance("AES/GCM/NoPadding");
GCMParameterSpec parameterSpec = new GCMParameterSpec(128, iv); //128 bit auth tag length
cipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, secretKey, parameterSpec);
byte[] cipherText = cipher.doFinal(plainText);


  • use 16 byte / 128 bit authentication tag (used to verify integrity/authenticity)
  • the authentication tag will be automatically appended to the cipher text (in the JCA implementation)
  • since GCM behaves like a stream cipher, no padding is required
  • use CipherInputStream when encrypting large chunks of data
  • want additional (non-secret) data checked if it was changed? You may want to use associated data with cipher.updateAAD(associatedData); More here.

3. Serialize to Single Message #

Just append IV and ciphertext. As stated above, the IV doesn’t need to be secret.

ByteBuffer byteBuffer = ByteBuffer.allocate(iv.length + cipherText.length);
byte[] cipherMessage = byteBuffer.array();

Optionally encode with Base64 if you need a string representation. Either use Android’s or Java 8’s built-in implementation (do not use Apache Commons Codec - it’s an awful implementation). Encoding is used to “convert” byte arrays to string representation to make it ASCII safe e.g.:

String base64CipherMessage = Base64.getEncoder().encodeToString(cipherMessage);

4. Prepare Decryption: Deserialize #

If you have encoded the message, first decode it to byte array:

byte[] cipherMessage = Base64.getDecoder().decode(base64CipherMessage)


5. Decrypt #

Initialize the cipher and set the same parameters as with the encryption:

final Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance("AES/GCM/NoPadding");
//use first 12 bytes for iv
AlgorithmParameterSpec gcmIv = new GCMParameterSpec(128, cipherMessage, 0, 12);
cipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE, secretKey, gcmIv);
//use everything from 12 bytes on as ciphertext
byte[] plainText = cipher.doFinal(cipherMessage, 12, cipherMessage.length - 12);


  • don’t forget to add associated data with cipher.updateAAD(associatedData); if you added it during encryption.

A working code snippet can be found in this gist.

Note that most recent Android (SDK 21+) and Java (7+) implementations should have AES-GCM. Older versions may lack it. I still choose this mode, since it is easier to implement in addition to being more efficient compared to similar mode of Encrypt-then-Mac (with e.g. AES-CBC + HMAC). See this article on how to implement AES-CBC with HMAC.